Olumo Rock is a massive outcrop of granite rocks of primitive formation from which Abeokuta (meaning under the rock )the capital of Ogun State derive its name.
Abeokuta lies South West of the Republic of Nigeria and is 100 kilometres from Lagos . To the North some 70 kilometres away is the city of Ibadan the capital of Oyo State.
The climate is hot and humid with an annual rainfall of 47 inches. The Rock is sacred to the Egba of Abeokuta because it was the place where they found refuge from their attackers te the days of internecine wars.
By l83O,the main body of the Egba has already settled at the site of theOlumo and the refuge provided by the rock marked the end of their wonderings and struggles for existence.
From that time onwards they have regarded Olumo Rock as their protection shrine and so made annual sacrifice to its deity. The importance of Olumo Rock to the Egba is conveyed in the assertion that Abeokuta was the gift of the Olumo, as Egypt was the gift of the Nile.
To the Egbas, Olumo Rock stands not only as a monument of faith in unity but also a source of strength and unfailing protection and sustenance from the supreme being who led their ancestors through the perplexities of life safely to Abeokuta.
Hence the interpretation of Olumo meaning “Oluwa fi mo” “God has put and end to our wanderings” Officially known as AT3, Olumo Rock is located off Alatise between lkija and Ikereku neighbourhoods of the town.
The highest point of Olumo is about 137 metres above sea levels. Looking from the top one would appreciate the wisdom of the first settlers to have chosen such a perfect bulwark against external invasion.
The name ‘Olumo, meaning God built if derives from the fact that rock is naturally surrounded by caves. One of which is about twenty feet long and twenty five feet wide. This has slab like stones which appear to serve as seats used by the ancient dwellers.
It probably was used as a hall of conference room. Another cave, some twenty metres long and seventy metres wide appears to be actual dwelling place.It has five built in rooms with a long corridor used as sitting room, kitchen and store.
At the east end of it is another bug cave, Out with mud walls in outer and inner chambers. This is used as a shrine by the devotees of Orise lgun (God of Longevity).